N F C Cachemaille-Day
Nugent Francis Cachemaille (sic) Cachemaille-Day (1896-1976), after training at the Architectural Association, became chief assistant to H S Goodhart-Rendel and helped Louis de Soissons (1890-1962) with the planning of Welwyn Garden City. Following this he was encouraged by Goodhart-Rendel to go abroad to study churches. On return in 1928 he went into partnership with F Lander and they joined Herbert Welch (1884-1953) in 1930. Cachemaille-Day was alone from 1936 ( a church in Wythenshaw, Manchester by both men was started in that year) and though he also designed housing projects and public buildings, his High Church sympathies led him to concentrate increasingly on churches, which he designed prolifically msinly in the years of reconstruction after World War II and about which he wrote. Though not advanced liturgically, many of them are unusual in appearance with an idiosyncratic use of the gothic, and reflect the contemporary work he had seen abroad, especially in Germany. In his later years he worked with J E Jackson and in 1959 he moved to Brighton, where he died.
Lit: A Hill: N F Cachemaille-Day - a Search for Something More, TSJ 7 pp20-27; DNB
Designed: Crawley, - St Richard (1952-54, dem 1994); Worthing, - St John, West Worthing (1936 and 1964 – with Jackson)
Extended/remodelled: Jarvis Brook (1935); Middleton (1932-33 – with Lander - not built); North Bersted (1956 - doubtful); Worthing, - St Botolph, Heene (1939)
John Cackett taught at Reigate College of Art in the 1980s, where his pupils included A Wright. He is an illustrator as well as a glassmaker. Apart from his time in Reigate, he has worked mostly in the North and his studio is at Newcastle upon Tyne.
Glass: Worthing, - St Symphorian, Durrington
C F Callow
Charles Fry Callow (1882-1968) was born in Cuckfield, but was living in St Leonards by 1891, the son of a butcher. He was articled to Arthur Wells of Hastings and also studied at the College of Art there. In 1901 he became an assistant to the famous theatre architect Frank Matcham and was in independent practice in London and primarily St Leonards by 1905. He went into partnership with R E Burstow in the town in 1949 and in due course Burstow took over the practice, though Callow was still active in 1964 at the start of the restoration of St Leonard, Hollington.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Hastings, - St Barnabas (1949 - not built)
Repaired: Crowhurst (nd); Hastings, - St Ethelburga (nd - doubtful); - St Leonard, Hollington (1964); - St Mary-in-the-Castle (nd); Westfield (1963-64)
James Cameron (1837- after 1901) was born in Edinburgh and was established as a painter and grainer in London by 1861. By 1871 he was specifically a glass painter, living in St Pancras, though it is not clear whether he had already taken up stained glass design. He first appears in KD/L under this heading in 1877 with an address at 46 Duke Street. In that year and the next one he had a partner named Churcher, of who nothing is known, but by 1879 the name of the business had reverted to Cameron and Co. In the following year he is again shown with a partner, Charles Elliott, but by 1883 they had parted company and Cameron had first an address in Wigmore Street and then one in George Street, which is not far away. He disappears from KD/L after 1889, but continued in business, for in 1891 he gives his profession as stained glass designer and his son, also James (b1876), was an apprentice in the craft, probably with his father; in 1901 he was still living with his parents but gave his occupation as plumber, which is closely related, Further evidence of continued work is provided by a window of c1899 by the father at Great Thurlow,Suffolk. In 1901 he was still living in West Hampstead where he had moved in the mid-1880s. Thereafter he disappears from the records and in 1911 his wife Helen (1844/45-1914) was living in Sheen, Surrrey as a widow. .
Camillin Denny CDMS
A Brighton firm of architects (now known as Camillin Denny Morton Scarr or CDMS) which has produced a wide range of work, including both educational and conservation projects.
Refurbished: Brighton, - St Stephen, Montpelier Place (2010-11)
T W Camm W H Camm F Camm
The involvement of the Camm family in glassmaking lasted for almost a century and is complex to unravel, since three separate companies have borne the name. First there was Thomas William Camm (1839-1912), who was a maker and designer of stained glass and worked initially for Chance Brothers of Smethwick. He and two brothers established a company called Camm Brothers around 1865 in the same town. This was sold in 1882 and the two other brothers continued to work for it until in 1893 they set up a new company, known as Camm and Co, still in Smethwick, which remained in existence in 1913; the attribution of a window to 'Camm and Co' at Callow End, Worcestershire, said to date from 1962 but possibly a little earlier, must be the result of confusion with the successors of Thomas. The latter had set up his own company, T W Camm, in 1888 and this was continued after his death until 1960 in the same name by Walter Herbert Camm (WHC) (1881-1967), his second son, and his daughter, Florence (FC) (1874-1960), assisted by another, older son, Robert (1878-1954), who was originally a schoolmaster. All three trained at Birmingham Municipal School of Art and Walter also attended that at West Bromwich. Much of the company's work is to be found in churches in the West Midlands. Florence was also a teacher at the Birmingham School and after her father's death was the dominant artistic influence in the firm, though some designs were by Walter. Both worked in a style that became closer to the Arts and Crafts movement and both increasingly painted their own glass. Florence designed glass on her own account as well, including some of c1939 in Methodist Central Hall, London, but none is known for certain in Sussex.
Glass: Shipley (WHC or FC); West Grinstead (WHC)
Jane Campbell first appears as a glassmaker in Reigate, Surrey in 1993 and in that year made at least one window for Chapel Studios (see this section below). More rece ntly her address has been at Chichester. Much of her work is architectural in nature and installed in secular buildings, including hospitals. She also engraves glass.
Glass: Bexhill, - St Mark Little Common; East Blatchington
Thomas Cane (1830-1905) was a Brighton builder, who in 1851 was a carpenter in Upper North Street. Churches on which he worked included Holy Trinity, Blatchington Road, Hove and among the restorations were Boxgrove (1865) and Little Horsted (1863), for both of which the architect was Sir George G Scott. He acted exceptionally as architect for the restoration of Alciston because of the lack of funds available to the parish, but otherwise acted as buiding contactor (as at Slinfold). In 1871 Cane was living in St Wilfrid’s Road, Cuckfield (i e Haywards Heath),but in 1873 he emigrated to New Zealand with his wife and ten children - he died in Christchurch, where he developed his architectural skills and is said to have worked on the cathedral, which had also been designed by Sir George G Scott. His architectural career was cut short by depression, but he was also an accomplished watercolour artist, mainly painting views of the Canterbury region. He is probably the T Cane, surveyor at 4 Bartholomews in Harrod’s Directory of 1867 and 1871 (B 29 p434 and KD) and may also be the Thomas Cane of Brighton who was a member of the Sussex Archaeological Society from 1862 to 1866.
Restored: Alciston (1861)
Marion Cantrell is an expert in church embroidery with 40 years experience, largely in creating vestments and banners. Initially working in a firm of miltary outfitters, in 1968 she went to work for the firm of L Grossé. After moving to Bexhill she continued to work for them until the firm closed in 1980. She has restored embroidery and has also designed engraved glass.
Fittings: Bexhill, - St Michael, hangings; Hastings, - Holy Trinity, embroidered triptych
Glass: Bexhill, - St Michael
J B Capronnier
Jean Baptiste Capronnier (1814-91) was born in Paris, the son of a painter for Svres porcelain, who moved to Brussels and took up glass design and manufacture about 1830. His son took over the business around 1840 and acquired an international reputation. He used intense acid colours and a highly pictorial idiom with large pieces of glass, with most detail added in enamel. His work is widely distributed in Belgium,and includes the restoration of old glass in the cathedral at Brussels. He echibited at the the Great Exhibition in London in 1851 and this did much to establish his reputation in England. This was at its highest in the 1860s, but he continued to supply glass into the 1880s. After his death the company became known as Comère and Capronnier, but nothing of the new owner is known beyond the fact that he produced a window at Berwick, Shropshire in 1894.
Glass: Chailey, - St Peter; Hastings, - St Leonard, Hollington (altered); Lewes, - St Anne; Offham (mostly gone); Westmeston
Henry Card (1818-1914) was born in Lewes the son of a bricklayer, also Henry, who appears in LBPB from 1830. The son was also initially a builder in West Street and later at 10 North Street. At the latter address his own son, Henry Curtis Card (1844-1912), was recorded as his partner in 1871 – indeed, the firm was already H Card and Son in 1861. By 1881 the father was County Architect and Surveyor and designed many police stations until resigning in 1898. His son in 1881 called himself ‘architect and surveyor’ and was still sharing premises with his father at 9 North Street in 1882 (KD/S). The architect of Spithurst could thus be either father or son. KD/S still lists the firm in 1911, though Henry's advanced age by then makes it likely that either his son or grandson. Percy Osborn Card (1878-1944), another architect,was in charge.
Designed: Spithurst (1879-80)
Consulted: Barcombe (1878 - possibly)
Carden and Godfrey
See under W E Godfrey.
John Edward Carew (c1782-1868) was born at Waterford, Ireland and may have trained first as a sculptor in Dublin. He moved to London, where until about 1826 he was assistant to Sir R Westmacott, though also producing work on his own account. From 1824, he worked for 15 years mainly for the 3rd Earl of Egremont, which explains why his work is found in the Petworth area, notably in the house itself. He also did architectural work, including some for the Earl. After Egremont died he sued his executors unsuccessfully and was declared bankrupt, though he continued to produce monuments and to exhibit his works, including a model for an altarpiece of the Baptism of Christ in the 'Catholic chapel' in Brighton (now St John the Baptist, where it is still to be found) at the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Catalogue p155 item 9).
Altered: Petworth (nd); Tillington (nd)
Memorials: Brighton - St Nicholas; Lyminster; Petworth (four); Tillington
Peter Carey (1801-76) in 1851-71 was a bricklayer in Hooe. On the application to the ICBS for alterations to Ninfield, his description as ‘architect’ has been replaced by ‘surveyor’. He is presumably the Peter Carey who was parish clerk in 1855 (KD) and other Careys were bricklayers in the Hooe and Ninfield area as late as 1887.
Altered: Ninfield (1833)
A D R Caroe Caroe and Partners
Alban Douglas Rendell Caroe (1904-91) was the third son of W D Caröe (see immediately below) and omitted the accent from his name. After Winchester and Cambridge, he trained under his father and became his partner. His father died in 1938 and following service in World War II he continued the practice on similar lines in Great College Street, Westminster, with Aubyn Peart Robinson (1902-85) as partner. Among the cathedals for which they were responsible was Wells, where they restored the west front between 1973 and 1986. During this period, the practice was gradually taken over by Alban Caroe's son, Martin (1933-99), who continued it as Caroe and Partners (C and Partners) after his death. It is located in Wells, London and Cardiff and unsurprisingly much of its conservation work is to be found in the West Country and Wales. Martin's son, Oliver, is also active as an architect in the field of church conservation - he is currently Surveyor at St Paul's cathedral - but is not a member of Caroe and Partners.
Lit: BAL Biog file (consisting mainly of an obit in The Independent for 23 December 1991)
Repaired/altered: Brighton and Hove, - Chapel Royal (1992 as C and Partners); Kirdford (1970)
W D Caröe
William Douglas Caröe (1857-1938) was the son of the Danish Consul in Liverpool (a naturalised corn merchant with an English wife). After studying mathematics at Cambridge, he became a pupil of J L Pearson and while in his office worked on Truro cathedral and Westminster Hall. He was managing assistant to E Christian (see this section below) before going into private practice in 1885. On the recommendation of J H Christian (see this section below), he succeeded E Christian as architect to the Ecclesiastical Commission in 1895 and the two were initially partners. He developed a large practice and was a member of the Art Workers Guild and Honorary Consulting Architect to the ICBS. Apart from private work he designed or restored seven bishops’ palaces and wrote several books. Like other architects of his generation, his preferred version of gothic for churches was Perp, often arranged to emphasise the picturesque elements, and many of his secular buildings are in the baroque or Queen Anne styles. His later work also shows an interest in both the Byzantine style and in late C16 and C17 continental work. As a restorer he was more thorough than the SPAB (with whom he had several clashes) preferred, though he took greater care than earlier restorers to retain the patina of a building. In the 1930s his partner is known to have been Herbert Passmore (1868-1966), but there is a record of them working together at St John the Baptist, Leytonstone, east London as early as 1909-10.
Lit: J M Freeman: W D Caröe RSTO FSA, his Architectural Achievements, Manchester, 1990
Restored/Repaired: Beddingham (1931-32); Bramber (1931); Colgate (nd); New Shoreham (c1924); Old Shoreham (nd); Rusper (1936-37); Sompting (1924); Ticehurst (1906); Westfield (1933-35)
Fittings: Burwash Weald, various; Sompting, reredos
Henry Carpenter (1830/31-98) was born in Clerkenwell, London and the circumstances of his training are lost. He first practised in Hastings, where directories show him in 1855 (KD) and 1858 (Melville) and he may be the ‘A Carpenter’ of that town who joined the Sussex Archaeological Society in 1854. By 1864 the list in SAC gives his address as London and directories show him from c1866 at 36a (later 60) Moorgate. In Hastings he was surveyor to the Blacklands estate and designed houses even after moving to London, where he worked mainly on commercial premises. He prospered, for he was living in Kensington Park Gardens in 1881. By 1891 he was retired (‘living on his own means’) and staying at an expensive hotel in Hastings. The similarity of names has led to confusion with R H Carpenter (see this section below).
Designed: Hastings, - Christ Church Blacklands (1874-77 – altered)
Restored: Hastings, - St Clement (1856 – attr); - St Leonard, Hollington (1865 – attr)
R C Carpenter
Richard Cromwell Carpenter (1812-55) was the son of a Middlesex magistrate, who also dealt in property. The son was articled to John Blyth (1806-78), a London architect who encouraged him to study church architecture, though much of his early work consisted of housing and similar projects for his father, one of them in the Tudor style. He also worked extensively on the design of new railways and held the post of district surveyor for East Islington. By the early 1840s, he was working on his own account and became associated with A W N Pugin who introduced him to the Cambridge Camden (later Ecclesiological) Society, whose ideals he shared. Throughout the rest of his life he enjoyed the strong support of the society's principal backer, Alexander Beresford Hope (1820-87) and since Pugin's conversion to Catholicism largely ruled him out from involvement with the Anglican church, it was to be Carpenter's churches which most fully met the Society's aspirations, especially those in Brighton and Chichester. These were all large churches but Carpenter also designed smaller rural ones, of which Nutley was the first. However, he remained active in the fields in which he had started until his father's retirement and subsequent death in the late 1840s allowed him more freedom to pursue his own preferences. He became a consulting architect of the ICBS and took an interest in fittings and stained glass, for which he often used Pugin's designs. He undertook several commissions for H M Wagner in Brighton, but he died early from TB. In 1846 he began the restoration of Chichester cathedral, though the cathedral that had the greatest influence on his own work was Exeter. His former assistant, W Slater, took over his practice.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 13 (1855) p165; DNB; lecture by Dr John Elliott to the Victorian Society 9 February 2011; J Elliott: R C Carpenter (1812-55): the Anglicans' Pugin, in C Webster (ed) 2011 pp133-62
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - All Saints, Compton Avenue (1847 – dem); - St Paul (1846-48); Chichester, - St Peter the Great (1848-52); Nutley (1845)
Restored: Bodiam (1845-53); Brighton and Hove, - St Nicholas (1853-54); Burwash (1855 - initial plans only); Catsfield (1845); Eastbourne, - St Mary (1851-52); East Chiltington (1854, carried out 1889-90); New Shoreham (1853-54 – design for nave, not executed); Old Shoreham (nd); Sompting (1854-55)
R H Carpenter
Richard Herbert Carpenter (1841-93) was the son of R C Carpenter (see immediately above) and, orphaned as a boy, was articled to and then partner of W Slater who took over his father’s practice. In 1862 he won the RIBA’s Student Prize (Proc RIBA). In succession to his father and Slater, he worked on the restoration of Chichester cathedral, particularly the choir. The most celebrated building associated with his name is Lancing College Chapel, though it seems more likely that the overall concept was Slater's work. After Slater’s death in 1872, B Ingelow became his partner.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 64 pp303, 319
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - St Leonard, Aldrington (1876-78 as C and Ingelow – incorporating mediaeval remnants); - Resurrection (1876-77 - dem 1968); Burwash Weald (1867 as Slater and C); Hastings, - Christ Church, Blacklands (1878-81 – attr, but probably wrong - see this section above under Henry Carpenter); Highbrook (1884 as C and Ingelow)
Restored/extended: Ardingly (1887 as C and Ingelow); Brighton and Hove, - St Paul (1876); Chalvington (1872-73 as Slater and C); Crowborough, - St John (1869-70 as Slater and C); Cuckfield (1878); Ditchling (1863-64 as Slater and C); Flimwell (1872-73 as Slater and C); Henfield (1870-71 as Slater and C); Hollington (1866 as Slater and C – doubtful); Lewes, - St John Baptist, Southover (1883-84 as C and Ingelow); Mayfield (1867-69 as Slater and C); New Shoreham (1866 as Slater and C - not executed); Newtimber (1875-76 as C and Ingelow); Ripe (1864 as Slater and C); West Hoathly (1870 as Slater and C); Westmeston (1867 - doubtful); Withyham (see Crowborough above); Wivelsfield (1869-70 as Slater and C)
Fitting: Chichester, - All Saints, Portfield, reredos originally in Chichester cathedral
A B Carter
Arthur Brian Carter was in practice at Wadhurst betwen 1954 and 1979. He is known to have worked on at least one church in London.
Repaired: Stonegate (1979-80)
Thomas Carter (d1795) was the nephew of a sculptor of the same name and inherited his business from another uncle, Benjamin Carter. Each in turn used a workshop at Hyde Park Corner, though Thomas junior moved to St James’s. It was probably the elder Thomas Carter who first employed Roubiliac in England. Thomas junior worked closely with his brother Benjamin and like his uncle, produced chimneypieces. None of the Carters was a stylistic innovator and many of Thomas Carter junior’s monuments are late examples of the Baroque style.
Lit: DNB for Thomas Carter senior
Memorial: Boxgrove (attr)
T Cartwright senior
Thomas Cartwright (c1617-1702) belonged to a family of masons in London and was responsible for a number of identified monuments. He had two sons, one of whom, Thomas junior, followed in the same business. Thomas senior's experience as a mason brought him considerable prosperity in the years after the Great Fire of London.
James Castle (1829/30-after 1891) was the son of Robert Castle, described in 1851 as builder and architectural sculptor of Cowley Road, Oxford but who seems to have been mainly an architect. James was born in Toddington, Gloucestershire, though his father came from Woodstock. In Oxford directories his addresses are in Iffley Road (1864) and Thames Street (1869). He worked on churches in Oxfordshire and held the impressive sounding post of Engineer of the Upper Thames (B 24 p617). He was linked with the Petworth area from 1857, when he designed Byworth school (B 15 p234). Others named Castle in Oxford in the building trade are probably connected. After 1869 James Castle underwent a series of changes in his life, initially of location, for in 1871 he was in Manchester, and then also of career, for in 1881 he was living in Paddington and called himself journalist as well as architect. Ten years later, the transition was complete, for whilst still in Paddington, he called himself journalist/author only. There is no further certain reference to him and neither he nor his wife is to be found in the 1901 census, which suggests that he was dead by then.
Designed: Duncton (1864-66)
Thomas Catley first appears as a surveyor in Hastings in 1832 and in the following year was surveyor to the Hastings Improvement Commissioners, planning and building beach defences. In 1839 he was listed as an architect of Barrack Ground, Hastings (Robson’s Directory), though a year later Pigot's Directory calls him a surveyor in London Road. He thus straddled the occupations of surveyor and architect, like others at this date. The latest reference is in KD 1845, which lists him as surveyor and house agent. This man is probably the same Thomas Catley, born in 1770/71 in Ashby, Lincolnshire, who in 1851 was at 19 Old London Road, described as ‘reduced ordinance [circumstances?]’ and died in 1854.
Designed: Hastings, - St Clement, Halton (1838-39 – dem 1970)
F T Cawthorn
Frank Thomas Cawthorn (1856-1942 - not 1921 as sometimes stated) was born in Greenwich and in 1891 was living in Brighton with his parents. At that date he had been since at the latest 1884 the last partner of E E Scott and continued the practice after Scott’s death in 1895. Under his name it still existed in 1930 – see under Scott for the buildings on which they both worked. J L Denman in his unpublished memoirs said that Cawthorn, whilst Scott was still alive, was mainly responsible for at least one of the joint practice's late works, St Mary, Buxted. Probably this was so in other cases, as Scott's health appears to have been poor in his last years. Cawthorn never married and lived with his widowed father as late as 1911 in the house where he was himself to die over 30 years later.
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - St Agnes, Hove (1903 - attr); - St Saviour (1885-1900 - as Scott and C - dem); Buxted, - St Mary (1883-86 as Scott and C)
Restored/altered: Brighton and Hove, - St John, Carlton Hill (1919); Clayton (1893 - as Scott and C); Keymer (1890 as Scott and C and 1909 - alone, attr)
Fitting: Portslade, reredos
Robert Chambers (1711-84) was born in Gloucestershire, where he produced at least one monument, but in later life he moved to London, where he worked both as a sculptor and a stainer of marble; he claimed to have devised new processes of staining. He produced a lot of architectural sculpture, but more monuments dating from his London years have been identified, mostly in Kent and London.
Memorials: Horsted Keynes
William Chambers, who is described as a surveyor in connection with his work at Shipley, has not been identified with certainty. He may be a carpenter of the name who in 1851 was living at Henfield and in 1861 had become a builder’s foreman at Dorking, Surrey. This man was born at Pulborough in 1794/95 and died at Epsom in 1866.
Repaired/extended: Shipley (1829-30)
Robin Herbert Chandler is an architect currently in practice in Hove.
Extensions: Brighton and Hove, - Holy Trinity, Bevendean (2012 - planned)
Sir F Chantrey
Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey (1781-1841) was the son of a carpenter from near Sheffield. He worked as a woodcarver and studied painting locally before moving to London in 1802. Having started there as a portrait painter, by 1805 he had taken up sculpture, at which he was hugely successful, producing mostly busts and public statues – attempts to encourage him towards a more heroic subject matter after a belated first visit to Italy in middle age were unsuccessful. His enormous output required a large number of assistants and his memorials are often repetitious. Many later works were in bronze and he had his own foundry. He left £150,000, from which the Chantrey Bequest was endowed, administered by the Royal Academy to buy works for the national collections.
Lit: M Baker and others: The Ledgers of Sir Francis Chantrey, WS 56 (1991-92); DNB
Memorials: Brightling; Cowfold; Easebourne; Goring; Wiston; Withyham, - St Michael.
The studio was established in 1973 by Alfred Fisher and Peter Archer, who both trained at J Powell and Sons, where Fisher was the last chief designer of stained glass; Archer is best known as a restorer of old glass. Fisher retired from the business in 1994 and Archer followed him. Since 1999 it has continued at King's Langley, Hertfordshire under Robert Holloway, who joined in 1975 after also working at Powell's. Various designers have worked for them, including Jane Campbell (see this section above) and R Moore. They have undertaken much restoration and conservation work, including work on glass by H Holiday at Uckfield.
Glass: Coleman’s Hatch
P O Chapman
Paul O Chapman designed glass for Cox and Barnard (see below) and commissions by him dating from between 1955 and 1978 are to be found. The lists of SMGP members show him at various addresses in Brighton and Hove during the same period. There is still a Paul Chapman, who still has a studio in Brighton and he may be the same.
Glass: High Hurstwood; Worthing, - St Paul; - St Andrew, West Tarring
J S Chapple
John Starling Chapple (1840-1922) was born in Exeter, the son of a carpenter and, despite a discrepancy of two years in the age, is probably the mason of the same name and place of birth who was living in Dover in 1861. Ten years later he was in London and called himself an architect. He was still there in 1891 and for the earlier part of the period has been variously described as office manager and clerk of W Burges; he was close to him and was his executor. Thus, he completed or enlarged several of Burges's last commissions, including a return to Dover, where he extended Burges's town hall in 1894. As well as helping him on the architectural side, he had designed furniture for Burges. After Burges died in 1881 Chapple was in practice at 7 John Street, Adelphi, but he had retired by 1901, when he was living in Streatham. In 1911 he had moved to Balham and he was to die at Barnet.
Extended: Brighton and Hove, - St Michael (1892-99 to Burges’s designs)
W A Chase
William Arthur Chase (1878-1944) was born in Bristol and by 1901 had moved to London, where he was still living in 1911, though he retained links with his birthplace, for in 1909 he had painted a mural in a Methodist church there. On both occasions he described himself as an artist and he exhibited at the RA. He is said to have been a civil servant in his youth, but this cannot have been for long. At a later date he is also said to have spent time in Italy and in Latin America, but at the time of his death he was living in Wiltshire. It is not known whether he made stained glass as well as designing it, though the only known example of his work in Sussex was made by J Powell and Sons, so he was probably one of the many freelance designers they used.
Glass: Hurst Green
Chater and Co
Said to be ‘of London’ when they supplied a window to Wadhurst church, they can be identified from their entries under artists in stained glass in KD with the long established firm of Joseph Chater and Co, glass merchants, which in 1890 had premises in St Dunstan’s Hill in the City. This is presumably the company in the same line of business which was in 1848 known as Chater and Hayward (KD/L). Later in the century the firm was owned by Henry Chater (1827-87), ‘window glass and lead merchant’. He was born in St Dunstan’s parish in the City and clearly prospered, since in successive censuses he is shown living in Leatherhead and Fetcham, Surrey and in 1881 in Kensington. The company’s works were in Commercial Road, E14, where it occurs for the last time in 1962. Though primarily catering for the building trade, the company clearly had aspirations in the field of stained glass, as its entries in KD/L between 1892 and 1939 show. Such aspirations are confirmed by the existence of showrooms in Golden Square (1933 and 1939) and Putney High Street (1950). However, it is less likely that they designed their own stained glass than that they bought it in.
Alexander Cheale (1818-69) known as ‘junior’, came from a nonconformist background. In 1851 he was a surveyor and builder of 32 High Street, Uckfield, where his father (1787-1858, born at Southover, Lewes) of the same name was also a builder, though in business separately. The father employed 30 staff and in 1828 (PD) had also been a carpenter, in 1839 (PD) a surveyor and in 1851 (KD) an insurance agent. In 1861 Alexander junior was at Church Street, employing 48 men. Though primarily a builder, he also designed buildings. As the father was dead, it was his son who worked on several churches in the 1860s; it is not always clear if this was as architect or contractor. At Cross-in-Hand in 1863 (B 21 p463), he was definitely the latter.
Rebuilt/restored: East Hoathly (1855-56); Waldron (1859-62 – almost certainly as contractor)
Sir H Cheere
Sir Henry Cheere (1703-81), like many other C18 craftsmen, was of Huguenot origin. He was first apprenticed to a mason, but became a pupil of the sculptor John Nost II (d1729) and was also briefly associated with Henry Scheemakers (1700-48), brother of the better known P Scheemakers. Cheere had a yard near Hyde Park by 1726 with his brother, John (1709-97), and the business was known for decorative sculpture, especially chimneypieces. During the 1730s he worked with Louis Francois Roubiliac (1702-62), though the complexities of his workshop have only recently been explored. His monuments were lighter in style than many of his contemporaries, with a fondness for coloured marbles and were widely imitated. His work is found in Oxford and London, including Westminster Abbey, though he was regarded as inferior to the major foreign sculptors in London like J M Rysbrack. He was active in public life and in property dealings in Westminster and it is probably to this rather than his sculpture that he owed first a knighthood and then a baronetcy. He retired around 1770.
Lit: M Baker: Roubiliac and Cheere in the 1730s and 40s, CM 10 (1995) pp90-108; DNB
Memorials: Hastings, - St Clement (attr); Streat (attr); Wadhurst (attr)
G Cheesman senior and junior
George Cheesman, senior (1789-1866) established a firm of builders in Brighton, G Cheesman and Son. He worked for H M Wagner, first on his vicarage in 1834 and later on several churches, eg St Paul. The address of the firm in 1837 was Kensington Street (PB) and in 1861 it was said to employ 190 men. George senior collaborated with his son, George junior (1814-82), who described himself in 1851 as a surveyor, on some projects and had some kind of partnership, which was dissolved in 1855 (BN 5 p413). However, he also had a partnership with his younger son Charles (1817-65) as ship owners and coal merchants, which ended in 1854 as a consequence of bankruptcy. The ending of two partnerships so close together may be connected, though George senior appears to have continued in the building trade and Charles appears to have been linked with this also. In his later years George senior also had a partner called Vincent Freeman and as Cheesman and Freeman the firm appears as late as 1888, though in the same year it also occurs as Cheesman and Co (KD/S). There was a related firm or branch in Uckfield in 1871 and 1881 (ibid) under Charles (1844-1917) who was the son of the elder Charles; By 1891 he was living in Preston and stayed there after retirement. In KD/S 1890 only he and Frederick Cheesman, presumably a relative, are listed. Both Georges designed buildings and it is not clear which one Somers Clarke (see below) had in mind when he dismissed him as ’simply a successful builder, employed as an architect’. George Cheesman junior eloped to Gretna Green with his first wife, Emma, who in 1841 called herself a builder. He was at 3 Norfolk Road in 1851 and 1855 (KD/S) and stayed in the Brighton building trade after his partnership with his father ended, for he is listed in 1858 (Melville’s Directory) as an architect and builder. The census returns of 1861 for the district in which he lived are lost and by 1871 he had retired to Tunbridge Wells after a second marriage and derived his income from domestic rents. This was not his final move, for he took up farming in Pembrokeshire and died at Tenby.
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - Christ Church, Montpelier Road (1838 – dem – by Cheesman senior); - St John Carlton Hill (1839-40 by Cheesman junior); - St Mark, Eastern Road (c1839 – attr on stylistic grounds); - St Stephen, Montpelier Place (1851 – attr); Lewes, - St John-sub-Castro (1839 - uncertain which Cheesman)
A E Child
Alfred Ernest Child (1875-1939) was a Londoner and trained in glassmaking at the Central School of Arts and Crafts under C Whall, who afterwards employed him as a craftsman. Whall was instrumental in proposing him for a training school in Dublin, where Child very soon became manager of a new glassmaking concern, An Tur Gloine (the Tower of Glass), which became the major glass studio in the city and the dominant influence on Irish glass of the period. There he spent the rest of his life, both teaching and designing. He wrote a book about Irish stained glass, published in 1929.
Glass: Crawley, - St John the Baptist; Rogate (attr)
Margaret Isobel Chilton (1875-1963), although English by birth, spent most of her working life in Scotland, in Glasgow and then in Edinburgh. There she established a studio with her student, Marjorie Kemp, where they worked in conformity with Arts and Crafts principles. She had studied stained glass at the Royal College of Art, where her teachers included C Whall and A J Drury (see under Lowndes and Drury). Her work reveals the influence of the former in particular.
Lit: H Davies: Margaret Isobel Chilton 1875-1963, JSG 30 (2006) pp129-39
Glass: Eastbourne, - St Andrew; - St Michael and All Angels, Willingdon Road
Thomas Chrippes (1783-1871) was in 1823-24 described as an architect, surveyor and carpenter of Petworth (PD). He was a man of diverse talents, a cabinetmaker in PD 1828 and in 1841 an auctioneer and appraiser, working with a son of the same name. In 1845 and 1851 the firm is in KD only as auctioneers. In 1851 the father is described as ‘retired auctioneer, upholsterer etc’, adding a further occupation.
Altered: Petworth (1821)
Ewan Christian (1814-95) was of Manx descent and became a pupil of Matthew Habershon, whilst also studying at the RA Schools. After working in the office of William Railton (1800-77), who designed Nelson's column amd became architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and with John Brown of Norwich (1805-76), he visited Italy before setting up in London in 1842, where he was quickly successful. His life’s work was for the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, to whom he in turn became architect in 1851; even before this he had become an adviser to the ICBS and later chaired its Committee of Architects. He is said to have restored over 350 churches, of which around 200, especially chancels, were for the Commissioners, and built many new ones. His duties for the Commission included approving all designs for new district churches and parsonages. His partners included J H Christian (see immediately below – from 1875) and Charles Purdy (also found as Purday, though little more is known of him) and among his pupils was W D Caröe (see above), who succeeded him with the Commissioners. He had evangelical sympathies and ensured good audibility in his churches. Though the size of his practice and the frequent pressure by the Commissioners to cut costs meant that his work could be uninspired, especially in his later life, some of his new churches show him to have been capable of real originality, though evidence of this in Sussex is limited. He was mistrusted by the increasingly dominant Anglo-Catholic wing of the Church of England, but his technical skills, shown mainly in some of his restorations, was a particular factor in earning him the respect of his profession, to the extent that he was chosen as President of the RIBA in 1884. He was an obvious choice as assessor for the first, abortive competition for Liverpool cathedral, though this was in the event to strengthen the critical perception of him in High Church quarters. In addition to churches, he designed commercial and public buildings, ending with the classical National Portrait Gallery in London.
Lit: Anon [privately printed]: Ewan Christian: Architect, Cambridge, 1896; M Cherry: 'The callous Mr Christian': the Making and Unmaking of a Professional Reputation, ET 42 (June 2010) pp49-68; DNB
Designed: High Hurstwood (1870-72); Hurstpierpoint, ‘Mission Hall’ (after 1887 - St George?); Offham (1858-60)
Restored/altered: Alciston (1861); Aldingbourne (1867); Balcombe (1872-73); Barcombe (1872 – unexecuted); Beddingham (1866 - attr); Bishopstone (1885); Bolney (1850s - report); Bosham (1863-65); Crawley Down (1871); East Blatchington (1860); Eastbourne, - St Mary (1867); Eastdean (E) (1861-62); East Dean (W) (1870-71); Falmer (nd); Ferring (1875); Hailsham (1868 - unexecuted?); Hastings, - St Mary [in the Castle?] (nd); Hellingly (1869); Hurstpierpoint, - St George (after 1887 - probable); Jevington (nd); Laughton (1883); Litlington (nd); Oving (1881); Portslade (1872); Poynings (1876 and 1886-90); Preston, - St Peter (1877-78 - attr); Ringmer (1884-85); Rotherfield (1889-93); Selmeston (1867); Singleton (1883 – may only have advised); South Bersted (1872 and 1880-81); Stoughton (1879 - attr); Walberton (1894); Westbourne (1863-64); Wisborough Green (1867-68)
Fittings: Appledram, reredos; Stoughton, reredos
J H Christian
Joseph Henry Christian (1832/33-1906) is variously described as E Christian’s (see immediately above) cousin or, wrongly, younger brother (Arch J 24 p19) and became his partner. He trained at the Architectural Association, of which he was later president. He recommended W D Caröe (see above) to succeed Ewan Christian at the Ecclesiastical Commission and they were partners until the older man retired. The family was of Manx ancestry and J H Christian undertook several projects on the island, including a large hospital. His sister married J L Pearson.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 91 p19
Extended: High Hurstwood (1903)
F G Christmas
Frederick George Christmas (1867-1938) was initially a decorative artist (1901) and his first position was with Campbell, Smith and Co, London, which he left in 1903. In that year he set up with two of the Campbell brothers a firm of glassmakers, Campbell and Christmas, which was afterwards known as Campbell Brothers. The renaming may have been after Christmas had established his own firm, which existed by 1915. From 1918 to 1925 his address was in Sedlescombe Road, Fulham (KD/L), after which he appears to have moved elsewhere in north London and later to West Brompton. He lived from 1935 in Balwer Street and then in Shepherd's Bush Green, where his business was still listed in 1942 (ibid); as so often, the identity of those carrying on the business is unknown. He made glass to the designs of, amonst others, Walter Crane (see this section below).
Glass: East Grinstead, - St Swithun; Warnham
J and M Christmas
John (1599-1654) and Matthias (1605-54) Christmas were the eldest and second sons of Gerard Christmas (1576-1634), a carver and sculptor of possibly Northern European ancestry, but born in London where he worked. John was woodcarver to the navy for many years and was succeeded by his sons, who continued to work in this area, but were also prolific designers and carvers of monuments; John was also responsible for several brasses.
Memorial: Westham (attr)
J T Christopher
John Thomas Christopher (1830-1910) was an architect in London and (in 1871) Watford. Between 1880 and 1900 Christopher added a tower to the now demolished church of All Saints, Finchley Road, London with his partmer E E White and the two were still together in 1887, when they restored Siston church in Gloucestershire and designed a commercial building in Oxford Street, London, White had trained under an architect named J C Christopher, who is likely to be a relative of his future partner, though not his father, who was called John Danby Christopher. As a young man J T Christopher travelled in France, Germany and Italy. Both on his own and with White he designed mainly schools and houses.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Repaired: Treyford (1888 – dem)
C G Cibber
Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630-1700) was the son of the King of Denmark’s cabinetmaker. He was sent to study in Rome at the King’s expense and also went to Amsterdam, thereby acquiring an understanding of the new baroque style. By 1655 he was in London and in about 1667 opened his own workshop. In that year he became sculptor to Charles II and was active in the City after the Great Fire, most notably on the relief on the base of the Monument. He was a gambler and was for a while imprisoned for debt. In later years he did mostly architectural and decorative sculpture, working for Sir Christopher Wren at Hampton Court and St Paul’s.
Lit: H Faber: Caius Gabriel Cibber 1630-1700, Oxford 1926; DNB
Memorial: Withyham, St Michael
Geoffrey Richard Claridge (b1933) was for most of his career a partner in Roth and Partners, but subsequently worked on his own account. He has also been closely involved with the ICBS, of which he became chairman.
See under Roth and Partners for his work with the partnership
Ann Clark lives at Ringmer and has designed mosaics for at least two churches.
Designed: Piddinghoe, mosaic; Ringmer, mosaic
T C Clark
Thomas Chatfield (or Chatfeild - both forms are found but the former is the consistently preferred spelling of the family) Clark (1829-95) was born in the Isle of Wight and practised there and in London. As an architect, he was best known for schools and other public buildings and built few churches, perhaps because he was a Unitarian, though he did design chapels for them. He was also a surveyor and left a fortune of £104,000. He was politically active and stood unsuccessfully as a Liberal for Parliament three times. From 1884 he was in partnership with his son, Howard (born 1860), who continued the practice after his father’s death.
Designed: Southbourne (1874-76)
There is no certainty over the identity of Isaac Clarke, an architect and surveyor of London, who is said to have made designs for St Margaret and St Mary, Brighton. Colvin in earlier editions includes him simpy as 'Clarke', whilst suggesting that his first name was Isaac. However, he is omitted without comment from the 4th edition. There is thus considerable doubt about his role, which was in fact that of clerk of works. This explains how Clarke, stated to have had links with A H Wilds, was involved in the building of two Brighton churches, for the design of which Wilds, perhaps with his partner C A Busby, was responsible. The name appears quite frequently among London architects of the earlier and mid-C19. An Isaac Clarke had an office at 7 Fenchurch Buildings and the name appears again at various City addresses between 1855 and 1873 (KD/L). Despite some discrepancies, this one could be the Isaac Clarke, architect and surveyor (1799/1800-1885), who was living in Cockfosters in 1851 and had various addresses in Bloomsbury between 1861 and 1881 - he in turn must be the Isaac Clarke who with a partner called James Humphrys designed a gothic church in Vauxhall, south London in 1850. If these two Clarkes and the man who worked on two Brighton churches are all the same, he would have been young to be working on his own by 1824.
Designed: Brighton, - St Margaret (1824 – attr and doubtful - dem, see under C A Busby); - St Mary (1827 – attr. Dem and replaced, see under Busby etc)
J D Clarke and Partners J D Clarke J D Clarke and Son
The practice of John D Clarke and Partners (also found as John D Clarke and Son and John D Clarke Architects) was established at Eastbourne in 1909 by John Daniel Clarke (1880-1947). He was born in Cambridge and in 1901 was living with his parents in Kensington while studying architecture. It is not known how he came to choose Eastbourne for his practice, but it seems to have been quickly successful, specialising in the restoration and extension of churches. Among the partners involved in such work have been David Clarke (1913-95 - DC, presumably J D Clarke's son) and Frederick Ernest Ford (b1920 - FEF). Since a merger with Ford, Newman and Whitty (FNW - see under A Whitty), another Sussex practice with an interest in churches, the practice has continued with little change. Of the present partners most associated with this type of work Richard Crook (RC - see this section below) came from FNW and Peter E V Pritchett (PP) is also architect to a number of churches in the diocese.
Designed: Rushlake Green (DC - 1963-66)
Restored/extended: Alfriston (RC - 1995); Barcombe (PP - 2007); Battle (2012); Berwick (RC - 2010); Bodiam (DC and FEF - 1970); Coleman's Hatch (DC - 1971); Coombes (RC - 2007-08); Crawley Down (2013); Cross-in-Hand (DC and FEF - c1972); Eastbourne, - All Souls (nd); - Christ Church (DC and FEF - 1972); - St Richard, Langney (FEF - 1977-94); Hailsham (PP - 1985); Hastings, St Helen, Ore (old) (2012); Heathfield, - St Richard (DC and FEF - 1962-65); Mayfield (PP - 2007-08); Northiam (2011); Penhurst (DC and FEF - 1959); Pyecombe (2012 - planned); Ringmer (2000); Seaford, - St Leonard (2006); Ticehurst (DC - 1970-77 and RC (2009)); Waldron (DC and FEF - 1971-72); Warbleton (DC - 1962-70); Wartling (DC and FEF - 1963-64); Wivelsfield (nd)
Joseph Clarke (1819-88) was an influential figure in mid-C19 church-building as architect to several dioceses in Kent, Essex and Hertfordshire (these changed boundaries more than once in the course of his career) as well as Honorary Secretary and Examining Architect to the ICBS. The circumstances of his training are not stated in his obituary, but his earliest buildings are mostly in the Oxford area and he continued to work there. In his earlier career he designed many schools, many of them in the dioceses of Oxford, Rochester and Canterbury, in each of which he was architect to the diocesan board of education. However, his own designs for churches are generally dull, perhaps reflecting the volume of work he undertook.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Builder 54 p197
Restored: Slaugham (1857-60); Westfield (1861 - probably advisory)
Inspected: Nuthurst (1857)
Richard Clarke, whose name is sometimes found without the final -e, had his main yard at Reading and produced mostly modest wall-tablets. References to him are found between 1811 and 1836. By 1830 he was in business with his sons.
Somers Clarke junior
Somers Clarke (1841-1926) was the son of a solicitor and parish clerk of Brighton of the same name, hence the 'junior'. The father had a clerical background, and the architect known as George Somers Clarke (1822-82 - not represented as a church architect in Sussex), was a cousin of the son. The latter became a pupil of Sir George G Scott and then partner of a fellow former Scott pupil, J T Micklethwaite. Their practice in London continued from 1876 to 1892 when Somers Clarke announced his retirement, though he subsequently became Surveyor of Chichester Cathedral, 1900-22 and of St Paul’s from 1897 to 1906. Despite the ending of the partnership, his name continued to be used in connection with it until Micklethwaite died in 1906. He spent much of his final years in Egypt for the sake of his health and published a substantial amount on Egyptology.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - St Martin (1874-75); Crawley, - St Peter (1880 – dem)
Restored/altered: Brighton and Hove, - St Nicholas (1876 and 1886); - St Patrick (1870 and 1888 – with Micklethwaite); - St Paul (nd, attr); - St Peter (1874-75 – not executed – and, in name at least, 1900-06); - Holy Trinity Chapel, Ship Street (1880-85); Ifield (1883 - with Micklethwaite); Lindfield (1883-84); Patcham (1875); Pyecombe (1897-98); West Blatchington (1890); Winchelsea (1903-11 - in name at least)
Clayton and Bell J R Clayton
John Richard Clayton (1827-1913), an associate of the Pre-Raphaelites, trained first as an architect under Sir George G Scott, for whom he worked as a draughtsman. He was also active as an artist and illustrator, as well as a sculptor, before turning to glass. In this capacity he attracted the attention of R C Carpenter (see this section above). Whilst in Scott's office, he befriended a fellow pupil, Alfred Bell (AB - 1832-95), a son of a Dorset farmworker, whom Scott encouraged to design stained glass, initially for Lavers and Barraud and J Powell and Sons. Clayton also designed glass, which was made by T Ward. They formed a partnership in 1857 and in their early years were heavily dependent on Heaton and Butler for technical expertise. Their earlier work was gothic in derivation and success was rapid, so that by 1870 they employed 300 men . Before the end of the 1860s their commercial outlook was criticised, especially as they moved away from the gothic to a style closer to the Aesthetic movement, replacing their previous bright colours by a more subdued, some said muddy, palette. Nevertheless, they remained at the fore of glassmakers and had many trainees, including C E Kempe and the founders of Burlison and Grylls. They also produced other fittings, including mosaics for which Clayton was mainly responsible – he designed those on the Albert Memorial and many were made by J Powell and Son. Still under the Bell family, the company moved to Buckinghamshire after bombing during World War II, when their archives were destroyed, and only closed in 1993. Members of the family were successively John Clement Bell (JCB) (1860-1944), R O Bell (ROB) and M C F Bell (MCFB).
Lit: P Larkworthy: Clayton and Bell, Stained Glass Artists and Decorators, 1984; I Mills: The Craftsmen of St Margaret’s, 2006 (Chapter 6)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, - St Patrick, wall paintings; Etchingham (Clayton only), pulpit; Eastbourne, - St Saviour, painted and mosaic decoration; Telscombe, wall paintings
Glass: Amberley; Ardingly; Battle (MCFB); Bexhill, - St Mark, Little Common; - St Peter; Birdham (MCFB); Bishopstone; Boxgrove; Brightling; Brighton and Hove, Hove, - All Saints (JCB, ROB and MCFB); - All Souls (formerly); - St Anne (ROB - formerly); - Annunciation (Clayton only); - St Barnabas; - Christ Church (formerly); - St Mark; - St Michael; - St Leonard, Aldrington; - St Patrick; - St Paul (Bell only); Burwash (Formerly - Clayton only); Clapham; Copthorne; Cowfold; Cuckfield; Ditchling (formerly); Eartham; East Grinstead, - St Mary; - St Swithun; East Hoathly; Eastbourne, - All Saints; - Christ Church; - St Mary (ROB and other); - St Saviour; Etchingham (designed by Clayton and made by Lavers); Fernhurst; Fittleworth (MCFB); Flimwell; Forest Row (AB); Graffham; Hammerwood; Harting; Hastings, - St Leonard; - Holy Trinity; - St Leonard, Hollington; - St Mary Magdalene; - St Matthew, Silverhill; - St Peter, Bohemia Road; Haywards Heath, - St Richard (MCFB); Highbrook; Horsham. - St Mary; - Holy Trinity; Isfield; Itchingfield; Keymer (ROB); Kingston by Lewes (MCFB alone); Lewes, - All Saints; Linchmere (MCFB); Little Horsted; Milland; Newtimber; Northchapel; North Mundham; Northiam (MCFB); Nutley; Petworth; Pevensey; Roffey (MCFB); Rogate; Rottingdean; Sedlescombe (ROB) (probably); Selsey, - St Wilfrid (MCFB); Southwater; Staplefield; Storrington; Stoughton; Sullington; Sutton; Telscombe; Ticehurst; West Grinstead; West Hoathly; Westbourne; Westhampnett; Westmeston; Wiston; Withyham, - St John; Worth; Worthing, - St Andrew; West Tarring; - St Mary, Broadwater, - St Matthew
Clayton and Black Clayton, Black and Scorer Clayton, Black and Daviel Morgan, Clayton and Black
Charles Edward Clayton (1853-1923) and Ernest Black (1855-1917) were pupils of Thomas Simpson (1825-1908), a Brighton architect and himself a pupil of J Butler, who designed several nonconformist chapels. The first mention of either as an architect is in 1876, when Clayton was a partner in the Brighton practice of Holford and Clayton (B 34 p748). In 1882 (KD) this had become Holford, Clayton and Black, but by 1883 the third partner,George Holford (b1851), another pupil of Simpson, had gone. In 1904 there was a further partner named Morgan of whom nothing is known. The firm, known for its houses and major projects in Brighton such as the Aquarium, was the largest and most prosperous in the town from the late C19 and the projects on which they worked included almost every type of building in a wide range of styles. There is at least one example of their work outside Sussex, some almshouses of 1907 at Helpston near Peterborough. Clayton, a Brighton man, lived and died at Edburton and was mainly responsible for the church projects. Black was the son of a town clerk and coroner of Brighton. After the death of the founders, the firm retained the name of Clayton, Black and Partners and Kenneth Eastty Black (1897-1978), Black's son, subsequently became a partner. The practice designed several landmark buildings in the city, including the Duke of York's cinema at Preston Circus and the preposterously Tudor King and Queen pub of c1931. The name of the practice underwent a number of changes, zone of them poorly documented as in the case of Clayton, Black and Scorer, which is encountered in c1920 when the practice designed a new First Christian Science church. A more familiar name emerged when John Rene Francis Daviel (1913-83), a relative of one of the founders, became a partner in the early 1950s and the practice became known as Clayton, Black and Daviel (CBD), though there were other architects in the firm including M G Alford (MGA) who joined in the 1960s. The firm was still active in 1974 (KD/Brighton) and Alford was still living in the town in 1984 and still calling himself an architect.
Designed: Brighton and Hove, - St Richard, Hollingdean (1954 - CBD); - St Thomas, Hove (1901-13); Good Shepherd, Mile Oak, Portslade (1967 - CBD (MGA))
Restored/repaired: Aldingbourne (1889 and 1904 – the latter as Morgan, C and B); Brighton and Hove, - St Luke, Queen's Park (1967) (attr to Daviel); Poynings (1897) – also erroneously given to ‘Clayton and Monk’); Pyecombe (1897-98); Sayers Common (1975 - by Daviel); Steyning (1907)
C E Clutterbuck senior C E Clutterbuck junior
Charles Edmund Clutterbuck (1806-61) trained as a miniature-painter, but designed glass from c1830; his works at Stratford, Essex are first mentioned in KD/L in 1855. He was one of the first to take C13 and C14 glass as models, though much of his work is in an increasingly unfashionable pictorial idiom with intense colouring using enamels. This fall from favour was compounded by the deterioration of much of his work for technical reasons. His son, another Charles Edmund (1839-83), continued the business at Stratford until 1882, in a style that developed little.
Glass: Lewes, - St Michael; Selham (attr); Walberton (from the dates both windows are by the younger Clutterbuck)
Henry Clutton (1819-95) was a pupil of E Blore and after starting his own practice, was associated with W Burges, who then had only limited experience of building churches and therefore needed Clutton’s support. During their period of asssociation Burges produced his plans for Lille cathedral, but in 1856 they quarrelled. Clutton became a Roman Catholic the following year and subsequently designed mainly Roman Catholic churches (there is one at Worthing) and large houses, including one at Balcombe (B 14 p321). The patron there was John Clutton, possibly a relative, which might explain his work on the parish church. His later years were less happy. His prize-winning designs for Westminster cathedral and Brompton oratory were unbuilt and in 1881 he was forced into retirement by blindness.
Restored: Balcombe (1847)
E Coade Coade and Sealy
Eleanor Coade (1733-1821) is a remarkable figure in late Georgian England, who was born in Exeter and after moving to London in 1759 was active on her own account as a linen draper there by the mid-1760s. Though generally known as ‘Mrs Coade’, she never married and in 1769 for reasons unknown she and her mother went into business with Daniel Pincot, who owned a manufactory for artificial stone in Lambeth, which was not very successful. Within a short time and until 1799 she was in business by herself and her manifestly superior commercial business skills soon led to success. One of her strengths was her use of eminent sculptors like J Flaxman and J Bacon as designers. The ‘stone’ itself was very hard and thus resistant to frost. It was fired over four days rather than being cast, thereby permitting very fine detail; larger works were cast in pieces and assembled with iron dowels. The 'stone' was the most successful of several attempts in the later C18 to produce such a substance and the notion that Mrs Coade invented a secret substance is without foundation. Its main use was external and among the buildings in Sussex where it is to be found are the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, Battle Abbey and (formerly) Arundel Castle. In churches, it was used mainly in monuments and Royal Arms. In 1799 Mrs Coade took her cousin John Sealy as a partner and until his death in 1813 the business was known as Coade and Sealy (C and S). Though old by 1813, she resumed full control until her death, employing William Croggon (WC), also a relative, as a manager. Thereafter, the firm was run by Croggon and then his son Thomas, who diversified into other products and after bankruptcy in the late 1830s, the manufacture of ‘stone’ ceased.
Lit: A Kelly: Coade Stone in Sussex, SAC 126 (1988) pp179-93; C Stanford: Mrs Coade's Stone: Fact and Fiction, The Architectural Historian 2 (2015-16) pp14-17; DNB
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, - Chapel Royal, Royal Arms; Petworth (C and S), Royal Arms
Memorials: Brighton and Hove, - St Nicholas; Bramber; Crawley, - St Margaret, Ifield (C and S); Old Shoreham (WC); Stanmer; Stansted; West Tarring (C and S); Wiston
H E Coe
Henry Edward (Buckmaster) Coe (1826-85) (not all references give his third Christian name) was a pupil of Sir George G Scott – G E Street was a fellow-pupil – and designed at least two exhibition halls in London, one at Olympia. He produced the winning design in the competition for the new Foreign Office building, but this was supplanted by one by Scott. His partnership was best known as Coe and Robinson, but his partner when Holy Trinity, Worthing was built was S R J Smith, who was mainly responsible for designing churches, though Coe had done so previously. Their churches appealed mainly to the low church party and were known for their plain but imposing characteristics. Coe and Robinson were also involved in the earliest stages of the new development of Bedford Park in west London.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Worthing, - Holy Trinity (1882)
Cogswell and Hagger
See G J Hagger.
F W Cole
Frederick Walter Cole (1908-98) became in 1924 an apprentice in glassmaking at W T Morris of Westminster, where he remained until World War II. In 1946 he returned and re-established a studio for the company after bomb damage. He remained as chief designer until final closure in 1958. Thereafter he worked briefly for Wippell and Co, before establishing his own workshop in Fulham and then in Canterbury, where he was largely concerned with restoration of the mediaeval glass in the cathedral.
Obit: JSG 21 (1997) (sic) p130
Glass: Coleman’s Hatch; East Dean (E); Felpham; Horsted Keynes; Mayfield
P W Cole
Philip William Cole (1884-1964) was born in St Leonards and trained in Hastings, as well as at the Royal College of Art. He became an ARA and was Principal of the Hastings School of Art from 1914; he lived at Fairlight. His work included both paintings and stained glass, the latter of which, as a long-time member of the Art Workers Guild, he often made himself. He worked among others, with the architect J L Denman.
Glass: Bexhill, - St Peter; Burwash; Eastdean (E); Hastings, - All Saints; - St Clement; - St Ethelburga; - St Mary-in-the-Castle (new); Northiam; Pett
Fittings: Hastings, - All Souls, altar; - St Mary Magdalene, altar paintings.
F A Coles
Frank Alleyn Coles (1866-1926) was in the office of George and Peto in 1888. He became an ARIBA in 1892 (Proc RIBA) and was later partner of C B Bone and H C Rogers. The partnership kept his name for over 20 years, though he had left before its only Sussex commission. He worked from 1890 in the Architects Department of the London County Council.
Altered: Brighton and Hove, - St John Baptist, Palmeira Square (1906-07)
References to John Coles are found between 1790 and 1833, but he has not been more fully identified. He worked in London and was the father and son of makers of memorial tablets, generally of a pretty modest nature.
Michael Coles has a studio in Lindfield, where he designs stained glass, embroidery and mosaics. Born in Fulham and trained at the Hammersmith School of Art and the Royal School of Art, he is also a draughtsman and painter. His glass is widely distributed, with examples in several London churches and at Walsingham, but there does not appear to be any in Sussex churches.
Paintings: Crawley, - St Alban, Stations of the Cross
Lit: J Snelling: Through a glass, beautifully, Sussex Life, November 2012 pp139-41
Alan Collins (b1928) graduated from the Royal College of Art in 1951 and has been active as a sculptor ever since, more recently in the USA, where he has taught widely. Much of his work has consisted of architectural carving, including lettering. His work includes extensive carving at Guildford cathedral and it is to be found widely in the USA.
Sculpture: Brighton and Hove, - St Nicholas, Saltdean, statue and sedilia
Collins W Collins
William Collins is recorded as a supplier of glass in London in the 1830s. The name is found twice in Brighton, at St Peter and (formerly) at Christ Church, Montpelier Road and it is reasonable to assume that both references are to the same person. He is listed as a ‘glassman’ in directories at several addresses in The Strand between 1801 and 1834. In 1811 he was ‘cut glass manufacturer to Her Majesty and the Royal Family’ and by 1813 was selling stained glass windows; among his customers was the Duke of Norfolk. He sold china and pottery decorated by artists in his employ and the manufacture of stained glass probably followed. J A Knowles found a reference to him as an ‘artist’, so he may also have been a designer. Knowles implies the business divided and Collins ceased to sell chandeliers and lustres; if so, such a reference in Pigot’s Directory for 1839, though the correct name, may not be to him, but his later fate is unknown. A window formerly in Sir John Soane's Museum in London, for which the final payment was made in 1832, was attributed to 'William Collins of The Strand' (see Vidimus 65 (January 2013) and 67 (March 2013), the latter following a successful reconstruction). A stained glass business of the same name recorded at 227 Strand in 1852 (KD/L) is likely to be connected, but but it seems improbable that it was still in the same hands over 50 years after it first appears. There seems litle doubt that the William Collins who worked in Brighton etc can be identified with this person. However, there is a less likely alternative, William John Thomas Collins (1788-1847), who is known to have designed enamelled glass panels, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Ely Stained Glass Museum. He was associated with the painter George Morland (1763-1804), if not formally trained by him, and studied at the RA Schools. His work included many genre paintings, in which there was increasing interest in the early C19, in addition to landscapes and other works. He became an RA aged 32. Neither the DNB entry nor the lengthy memoir by his more famous son, the writer Wilkie Collins (1824-89), mentions glass of any kind, but the attribution of the two panels seems definite, though he may have been responsible only for the design. His father was a picture dealer and writer and cannot therefore have been the Collins of The Strand..
Lit [For W J T Collins]: W W Collins: The Life of William Collins, Esq. RA, 1848; DNB; [For Collins of The Strand]: see BSMGPJ 13/1 (1959) p331
Glass: Brighton and Hove, - Christ Church, Montpelier Road (formerly); - St Peter
J B Colson
John Barnes Colson (1851-1908) was born at Winchester, where his father, also John (1820/21-95), was Surveyor to the Dean and Chapter. He was a pupil of and then in partnership with his father until his death, when he succeeded to his father's position at the cathedral, where he worked mainly on the nave. Most of his work on churches was in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, though he had a house near Chichester. From 1897 to 1907 he was in partnership with N C H Nisbett and F R Farrow and they also had an office in London, where Farrow appears to have been based.
Obits: The Builder 94 (1908) p97, RIBAJ 15 (1908) p275
Restored: Bosham (1903)
Maximilian Colt (d after 1641) was born in Arras, then in Flanders and now in France, of Huguenot origin and probably with the surname Poultrain. No date of birth is known, but he was in London by the late C16 and established himself in Smithfield. He rapidly came to the attention of the new king, James I, for whom he carried out the substantial and rather grandiose monument to Elizabeth I in Westminster Abbey, as well as other smaller royal commissions. He became the King's master carver in 1608. In addition, he designed many other monuments, in Scotland as well as England.
Memorial: Warbleton (attr)
Sir J N Comper
Sir (John) Ninian Comper (1864-1960) was the son of a leading Anglo-Catholic Episcopalian priest in Scotland and J M Neale’s (1818-66) godson, though his family originated in Pulborough. Before becoming a pupil of Bodley and Garner, he worked informally for about a year with C E Kempe and became interested in stained glass. Though he designed some remarkable churches, he was largely reliant on others for advice on structural matters. Kempe and Bodley introduced him to late German gothic, a strong influence in his earlier career. From 1889-1904 his partner was William Bucknall (1851-1944), who had been an assistant of Bodley whilst Comper had been a pupil and became his brother-in-law. Particularly after a visit to Sicily in 1906, Comper's interest in Anglo-Catholic liturgy led a development in his style towards a synthesis of gothic and Renaissance that he termed ‘unity by inclusion’. It owed much to early Christian churches he saw in southern Italy and elsewhere in the Mediterranean area. His only complete building in Sussex is the chapel at Chailey Heritage. Many younger architects disparaged such a survivor, but John Betjeman took him up and interest in him revived after World War II. He designed stained glass (he preferred to call it ‘painted glass’) and fittings throughout his career and concentrated on these in his last years, often in churches where he had worked before. Much was done by his great-nephew, John Samuel Bucknall (1917-89 - JSB), who continued in a similar style after Comper died, and his son, S Comper (see immediately below), who had helped his father as a young man. His most enduring contribution to church fittings was the so-called English altar, flanked by posts with hangings at the sides and back, which was widely imitated in the early C20. As a designer of glass, he greatly influenced the next generation, some of them his pupils, like M Travers. To later tastes much is weakly drawn and over-reliant on white or clear glass.
Lit: A Symondson: The Life and Work of Sir Ninian Comper, 1988; A Symondson and S Bucknall: Sir Ninian Comper, Reading, 2006
Restored/altered: Danehill (1935); Pulborough (1929 and 1955-60); Wivelsfield (1937 - attr)
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, - St Thomas, pulpit; Danehill, reredos; Eastbourne - St Anne, reredos (formerly; part now at St Mary Magdalene, Coldean, Brighton); East Grinstead - St Mary, altar and canopy; - St Swithun, crucifix; Pulborough, fittings; Rogate, war memorial; Willingdon, roodscreen; Withyham, - St John, monument
Glass: Bexhill, - St Augustine (attr, from St Thomas, Hove); Brighton and Hove, - St Nicholas; - St Thomas, Hove; East Preston; Eastbourne, - St Mary, Willingdon; Forest Row; Hastings, - St Clement, Halton (dem); Petworth; Pulborough (also JSB)
(John Baptist) Sebastian Comper (1891-1971) was the son of Sir J N Comper (see immediately above). He started as an engineer before training as an architect and assisting his father until he set up his own practice in 1920. He quarrelled with his father after applying to join the RIBA, of which the older man vehemently disapproved. Their practices were of similar character, however, concentrating mainly on churches and related buildings. In the case of the son, his post-war work remained resolutely gothic with none of his father's sometimes playful mixture of styles. His glass and fittings are very much in the idiom of his father and like him, he worked at Chailey Heritage.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Restored: Wivelsfield (post-1933); Pulborough (1957-58)
C J Connick
Charles Jay Connick (1875-1945) was born in Pennsylvania and trained initially as a newspaper illustrator in Pittsburgh. His skills as a draughtsman led to his being apprenticed as a glass maker and designer, after which he worked in New York before settling in Boston, Mass, where he was employed in more than one studio. In 1910 he visited Britain, where he met C Whall and J Powell and Sons before travelling on to France; both of these were to play an important part in his subsequent artistic development. On the basis of his increased confidence after his travels he established his own studio in Boston. This was run on the Arts and Crafts principles he had encountered in England and remained in existence until 1986, long after his death. His work reveals Whall's influence and, unusually for glassmakers in America he took great interest in the glass he used. At least some of this reached him through Thomas Cowell of Powell's (see under L Davis). At this time there was far more building of churches in the USA than in Britain and Connick became the most prolific and influential designer there. His later work shows a greater liking for intense colours and a more stylised approach and he also became a prominent writer on the subject. The small medallion by which alone he is represented in Sussex, though not unique in his later years, is not typical of his generally large scale compositions to be found in US churches.
Glass: Selsey, - St Peter
W H Constable
William Henry Constable (1831-1911) was born in Suffolk but moved to Cambridge, where he helped to restore the glass at King’s College and where he lived until he moved to Canterbury late in life. In his earlier career he appears to have been connected with the Warwick firm of William Holland (JSG 24 p105), but but no certain record of his work is known before he went to Cambridge. There, he was in business initially with William Jay Bolton (1816-84), apparently from as early as 1848 (date of foundation of present company), but took over completely when Bolton took holy orders in 1853. Much of the company's glass is dark in colour and defective in design and there also exist a few painted or tiled fittings. Though for a while it also had an address in London, most of its glass is to be found in East Anglia and Cambridgeshire. The company continued to make stained glass until at least the end of the 1880s and it still remains in business in Cambridge as W H Constable and Co Ltd, glass suppliers, though long without any involvement with stained glass.
H C Constantine
Henry Courtenay Constantine (1884-1971) lived and died at Marlow, Buckinghamshire, but also had an address in Mortimer Street, London W1. He was a pupil of Alfred Burr (1855-1952), who designed cinemas, houses, theatres and factories. His own practice followed similar lines for the most part.
Obit: The Builder 220 p20/74
Extended: Slindon (1935)
Jennifer Conway trained as a glass engraver under John Hutton (1906-78), whose work is to be found at the west end of Coventry cathedral, She designed the figure set in the tower arch at St Mary, Barcombe in about 1981.
Engraved glass: Barcombe, - St Mary
F C Cook
No architect of this precise name is known. Though the name is common, he could be identical with C F Cook, an architect of Portsmouth in 1896 (Arch J 3 p191) who resists fuller identification or with Frederick George Cooke (1858-1938) of 2 Hyde Gardens, Eastbourne. The latter had a practice in the town by 1892, when he designed a large house there. His obituary in the local press (BAL Biog File) does not mention any churches, but as he had been associated with P D Stonham, who worked on several, he cannot be excluded entirely. Nevertheless, the former seems slightly the more likely, though the only architect with the surname in KD/Hampshire and the Isle of Wight (1898) has the first names Charles Clarence; his address is given as 100 Commercial Road, Portsmouth.
(My thanks to Martin Woodfine for providing additional information about F G Cooke).
Designed: Worthing, - Good Shepherd (1906 - dem)
Hester Cook is known only from a single reference specifically to Miss Hester Cook in 1926. The name is surprisingly common and no one of this name can be identified for certain. There was a Mrs Hester Ann Cook (1860/61-1913) of Acton, who like her husband, in 1901 described herself as an artist. However, her dates make it unlikely that she did the work at Brede. In any case, the use of ‘Miss’ suggests that they are not the same; possibly Miss Cook was an amateur.
Roy Walter Coomber (b1930) trained in glassmaking at Cox and Barnard in Hove and at Brighton College of Art. Afterwards he assisted C Kinder and when he joined the newly established firm of Barton, Kinder and Alderson, Coomber followed for a brief time, continuing to assist Kinder in particular. Subsequently he joined Goddard and Gibbs, before moving to J Wippell and Co (later Wippell Mowbray Studios) in Exeter and then in 1979 to Bristol, where he worked for James Clark and Eaton until 1988. In that year he decided to work on his own account with a studio at Bishopsworth, Bristol.
Glass: Jarvis Brook
A F Coombes
Alan Frederick Coombes (b1930) was practising as an architect in Haslemere, Surrey by the 1960s. Although now retired, the practice of which he was a member, Ramsay Coombes and Cooper, still exists, though in 1994 it merged with another practice and its offices are at West Meon, Petersfield, Hampshire. The present practice has largely specialised in designing hospitals and nursing homes..
Designed: Camelsdale (1971)
C H Cooper
Charles Herbert Cooper (1861-94) was of partially Sussex ancestry, though he was born at Greenwich. He became a pupil of R Plumbe, working then in his office before joining those of W O Milne and later Somers Clarke junior. When he passed the Final Examination of the RIBA in 1889, his address was 61 Holland Road, Kensington (Proc RIBA). He started his own practice two years before his early death from typhoid and his first work was a warehouse in the City. He is commemorated in Icklesham church, where his name was added to a family memorial dating from 1824.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: RIBAJ 2 (1894-95) p18
Altered: Southwick (1892-93)
Thomas Cooper (1793-1854) was the son of a Brighton builder, though he was born in St Marylebone. He probably learned the basics of building and design from his father and returned to Brighton, where he in turn became quite a successful designer of public buildings, including the town hall and the original, now demolished Bedford Hotel. However, he did not abandon the building trade and in 1851 described himself as a builder.
Designed: Brighton, - St Mark Eastern Road (c1840 - attr)
G B Cooper-Abbs
George Bryan Cooper-Abbs (1901-66) went to Camberwell School of Art, where he was taught by W Aikman. He was employed twice by J Powell and Sons, the first time from 1917-19, when he must have been pretty junior, and again from 1928 to 1932, working mainly for J H Hogan, who was also a pupil of Aikman. From there he moved to J Wippell and Co in Exeter, for whom he was chief designer until his death. He also worked on his own account from an address in the city.
Glass: Hastings, - St John, Hollington
E B Copnall
Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903-75), who is often known as Bainbridge Copnall, was born in Cape Town, South Africa, but moved when young to the Horsham area, where he went to school. Later he lived at Slinfold, but then moved to Canterbury. He studied at Goldsmiths' College and the RA Schools and was primarily a sculptor though also a painter. Much of his work consisted of architectural sculpture, carried out in a variety of styles including art deco and abstract. Major commissions on which he worked included the external carving on the RIBA building and Broadcasting House in London.
Sculpture: Horsham, - St John, Broadbridge Heath (formerly)
M R Corbet
Matthew Ridley Corbet (1850-1902) was the son of a clergyman in Lincolnshire and became a pupil in London of Alexander Davis Cooper (1819/20-95), a frequent exhibitor at the RA. He also studied at the Slade and RA Schools. His early work included portraits, but after he settled in Italy in 1880-81, he concentrated on landscapes, studying further under Giovanni Costa (1826-1903), who had close relations with British artists in Italy. Some of these landscapes were bought for the nation by the Chantrey Bequest. Somewhat oddly he generally spent the winter months in London, where he exhibited his works. Shortly before his death from pneumonia he was elected ARA.
Obit: The Times 27 June 1902; DNB
Fitting: Brighton and Hove, - St Nicholas, painted reredos
No Edward Corfield is listed in any directory of the period as an architect and the much later attribution of St John, Palmeira Square to an architect of this name must be regarded as doubtful, since it is authoritatively given to the Habershon brothers. However, an architect of the exact name (born in London, whose dates were 1819/20-52, but of whom nothing more is known except for the date of his death) was a visitor in 1851 at 7 Victoria Street, Brighton - the coincidence is intriguing. Conceivably he is the same as Edward Corfield, land agent of 31 Francis Street, Tottenham Court Road, London (KD/L 1843 to 1851), but there can be no certainty.
Designed: Hove, - St John, Palmeira Square (doubtful - 1851)
H C Corlette
Hubert Christian Corlette (1869-1956) was born and partially trained in Sydney, Australia, before moving to London, where he was living in Enfield when he passed the RIBA Final Examination in 1892 and became an ARIBA (Proc RIBA). He was Sir C Nicholson’s partner from 1895 until, as a reserve officer, he joined the Army full-time in 1914, though the partnership may have lasted formally until as late as 1920 (his obituary in The Times calls him Major). He wrote an account of the cathedral and see of Chichester and was architect to the Government of Jamaica. His work tended to be in a heavier idiom than Nicholson's and he seems also to have been a more effective publicist
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: The Times 24 April 1956
Fitting: Burwash (nd)
Marcus Cornish studied at the Camberwell School of Art and then at the Royal College of Art. His interests embrace both figurative sculpture and ceramics. He studied the latter in India, but since graduation in 1993 has become best known for his sculpture. He has undertaken several commissions for the Prince of Wales and other works are displayed in public places, including St James's Square, London. His religious works are to be found in a number of churches, three of them in Sussex (the other two are at Catholic churches in Heron's Ghyll and Uckfield).
Maud Cotter (b1954) comes from Wexford, Ireland. She spent five years in London and then returned to Cork, where she had first studied. As an artist she uses everyday objects, such as cups, in her work. Her stained glass mostly dates from her earlier career.
Glass: Kingston by Lewes
William Cottingham (1830/31-1911) was born in East Chiltington. In 1871 he was a bricklayer and grocer there and by 1881 a builder only, employing six men. In 1891 he was living in Lewes and Rowland Cottingham, his son and also a bricklayer (born 1860), headed the household at East Chiltington. The family appears to have broken up shortly afterwards,.for William remarried and moved to Ealing, where he had a three-year old child in 1901, whilst in that year Rowland was living and working in Chiddingfold, Surrey. He disappears from the records after this, but his father died back at Lewes in 1911 as a widower.
Restored: East Chiltington (1889-90)
Percy John Court (1865/66-1949 - no precise record of his birth has come to light) was the son of a National Schoolmaster at Ditchling, where he was born. In 1881 he was a baker's apprentice there, but 10 years later and again in 1911 he was recorded as a joiner, living in Clayton, and this was to be his life's work. He worked for the best known building contractors in the area, Norman and Burt of Burgess Hill, and on the evidence of the reredos at Sayers Common also designed woodwork. The same commission shows him working in conjunction with his younger brother, Wilfred (see immediately following).
Fitting: Sayers Common (reredos)
Wilfred Court (1875-1956) was the younger brother of Percy Court (see immediately preceding), with whom he was to collaborate. He was apprenticed as a woodcarver (1891), though he also described himself as a stonecarver. By 1901 he was settled in Burgess Hill and established in his trade and in 1911 had moved only as far as Keymer. Like his brother he was employed by the leading building contractors in Burgess Hill, Norman and Burt.
Carving: Poynings, figures on altar-rails; Sayers Common (reredos)
R G Covell
Ralph George Covington Covell (1911-88) was an architect of 7-12 Lexington Street, London W1. Before World War II he taught architecture at Croydon College of Art and was in independent practice from 1937. In 1948 he went into partnership with A E T Matthews and together they were responsible for 23 new churches in the Diocese of Southwark and many buildings, especially for universities, in Scotland. In 1968 they even designed a pub in West Ham. In 1959 the large-scale Piccadilly Plaza in Manchester was begun to their design (since altered) and in the 1960s they were responsible for Bar Hill, a new residential suburb of Cambridge, but increasingly the practice concentrated on Scotland with offices in Edinburgh and Aberdeen. However, the practice, which still exists, did not entirely turn its back on England, where it was responsible for a number of further large projects including more than one office block in Lomdon and a major building at Milton Keynes in 1989-90. By 1978 at the latest the practice had become known as Covell Matthews Wheatley (often shortened to CMW), following the advent of John Robert Glamis Wheatley in 1966. There is some evidence that he was primarily responsible for the practice's later projects in England. Covell himself was a keen organist and retired to Crowborough, where he died and was active in charitable works.
Obit: RIBAJ 96 (March 1988) p104
Altered: Groombridge (1968-69 - with Matthews); Withyham, - St John (1970)
Fitting: Jarvis Brook, pulpit
John Cowper (1782-1853) was born in Essex but became a builder and surveyor of Abinger Place, Lewes (PD 1823/24 and 1839). He worked on various public buildings, including the County Hall in Lewes, as a surveyor. At some time after 1845, the date of his latest known work in Sussex, he moved to Clerkenwell, London, where he was a surveyor of works in 1851 and died in Islington (adjacent to Clerkenwell).
Designed: Danehill (1835-36 – dem); Nutley (1845 - as surveyor)
Altered: Lewes, - St Michael (1828)
Sherard Osborne Cowper-Coles (1866-1936) was born at Ventnor, the son of a Naval captain, and trained as an engineer, specialising in metallurgy. By 1893 he owned his own business and developed a process called Sherardisation, somewhat similar to Galvanising. His business had various addresses in London, including Victoria Street between 1902 and 1909. He also lived in that area, at Artillery Mansions, Victoria Street and later 87 Victoria Street; in 1914 his address was Old Pye Street, but his company was not listed. In later years he lived at Sunbury-on-Thames and had an adjacent workshop, where he conducted numerous experiments, few of which had any success, though in all he was awarded over 900 patents. He was thus not a professional architect when he designed a window at Harting, where though buried at Sunbury, there is a memorial to him.
Window: Harting (1896)
Cox and Barnard
The firm of glass makers was first founded in Hove in 1919 by a Mr Loadsman, of whom little is known. On his death very shortly afterwards, the business was taken over by Oliver Cox and William Barnard who had been Loadsman's employees, though their antecedents are equally obscure. The firm prospered and examples of its glass are to be found in both Kent and Sussex; it still exists, currently at Livingston Road, Hove and its products have included both decorative and stained glass in some quantity. Much of its more recent stained glass has been for Roman Catholic churches and it has been headed by Yvonne Ivy Grinyer (b1955). Other designers, mostly in the past, have included K Adams, C Knight, H Mileham and P O Chapman.
Glass: Bolney; Brighton and Hove, - St Andrew, Moulsecoomb; - St Philip; - St Thomas; East Grinstead, - St Swithun; Eridge Green; Keymer; Hailsham; Haywards Heath, - St Wilfrid (restored); High Hurstwood; Newhaven; Newick; Portslade, - St Nicholas; Seaford; Southwick; Worthing, - St Andrew, West Tarring; - St Mary, Broadwater
Cox and Sons Cox, Sons and Buckley
Thomas Cox (for whom there are records from c1840 until his death in 1873) was a clerical tailor in London who first appears as a glass stainer in KD/L in 1862, about the time that he also added metalwork to his company’s wares. At that time his address was Maiden Lane in Covent Garden and the firm was known as Cox and Son. After Thomas Cox’s death, his sons Edward (b1841) and Thomas junior (b1840/1) ran the firm and by 1878 they had moved nearby to Southampton Street (KD/L). From an early date, much of the company's success derived from its catalogues for what Thomas Cox called an Ecclesiastical Warehouse; the earliest known catalogue dates from 1866 and among other furnishings the most substantial items were designs for bench ends, though none can be identified with certainty in Sussex. Among his designers in 1866 was S W Tracy and two brasses by the company at Stanford on Teme, Worcestershire are known, dated 1864 and 1869.. Thomas Cox’s sons were joined by M Buckley about 1881; the firm first appears in KD/L as Cox, Sons and Buckley in 1883. In 1893 it merged with Curtis, Ward and Hughes (see Ward and Hughes), though the company maintained a separate identity at 10 Henrietta Street in KD/L until 1921 and they are known to have supplied glass under their own name during the period.
Glass: Brighton and Hove, - St Andrew, Church Road, Hove; Ewhurst Green; Horsham, - St Mary; Newhaven; New Shoreham; Mannings Heath; Pett; Polegate; Slinfold; West Wittering; Worthing, - St Andrew, West Tarring; - Christ Church
R C Cox
Robert Charles Cox became the partner of J D Wylson in 1961 in Rye, but Wylson died the following year. For some years his name was kept in that of the practice, though Cox was in sole charge. He later moved to Hawkhurst, Kent and also had an office in London.
Repairs: Beckley (1968-70); Bexhill, - St Mark, Little Common (1962 - after Wylson's death); Northiam (1966); Peasmarsh (1962-63)
Trena Mary Cox (1895-1980) was born in the Wirrall and raised in Birkenhead, the daughter of a businessman and a mother of Norwegian descent. Confusingly, she was registered at birth as Emma Trina Cox and it is not known when she changed her name. She studied drawing, design and painting locally and moved to Chester in 1924, where she spent the rest of her life. Shortly before going to Chester she had exhibited designs for stained glass, but after the move she was closely associated with an unnamed local firm of glassmakers and it was probably here that she learned the practical skills of glassmaking; otherwise her teachers are unknown. By 1926 when she accepted a commission at St Mary, Whalley, Lancashire, she was accepting independent commissions and was fully on her own by the time of World War II. Trena Cox continued to make and design glass until 1972, most of it in Cheshire and Lancashire, and became a fellow of the Society of Master Glass Painters. Her early glass was much in the idiom established by C Whall and his followers, but in later years her style evolved with more muted colours and larger quarries for the background which were often uncoloured.
Lit: P Jones: Trena Cox: Emergence of a Stained Glass Artist, HC 2012 pp11-14. My thanks to Mr Jones for drawing this to my attention and for clarifying the artist's personal circumstances, which have been previously misinterpreted.
Glass: Lower Beeding
CPL Architects are based in Eastbourne and specialise in churches and related projects. They have been commissioned by several denominations and their work is to be found mostly in the London area and the south east.
Extended: All Saints, Carlyle Road, Eastbourne (2007)
Michael Crake was a sculptor who is found between 1801 and 1829. Directories give him at various addresses in London, including 64, Portland Road in 1829, but his work is to be found in much of England and beyond.
Memorial: Lewes, - St Michael
Walter Crane (1845-1915), the son of an artist, was initially apprenticed to a wood engraver and was largely self-taught as an artist. He became famous initially for his illustrated books, mainly for children, the first of which appeared when he was only 17, but he worked in a variety of media, including painting and stained glass. His style derived from the Pre-Raphaelites, though it also shows the influence of Japanese woodcuts and W Morris described him as 'a gothic soul with renaissance training'. He was a founder and later President of the Art Workers Guild and briefly worked at the Manchester Municipal School of Art and also as Principal of the Royal College of Art, as well as being active as a socialist, which deepened his links with Morris. He died at Horsham. Much of his glass, often dark in character, was made by F G Christmas (see this section above) and also by James Sylvester Sparrow (1862-1919). Crane also designed some windows for J Powell and Sons.
Obit: The Times 16 Mar 1915
Glass: Selsey, - St Peter
John Edward Crawford (1897-1982) was first apprenticed as a glassmaker in 1911 to John Bonner (1875-1917). His apprenticeship appears to have been extended and covered other applied arts - he won prizes in 1914 and 1915 for three-dimensional figures for casting. From 1920 to 1927 he worked on a freelance basis with Lowndes and Drury and during this time he met M Travers, whose chief assistant and sculptor he became in 1924, remaining in this position until Travers's death in 1948. In 1925 he was in addition appointed technical instructor under Travers at the Royal College of Art, and held this position until 1959. He continued to produce designs himself, both glass and fittings, sometimes in his own name and sometimes on behalf of Travers. His association with Lowndes and Drury continued and they made most of his glass for the rest of his life, He designed fittings on a similar basis for Faith Craft until after 1950 when F Stephens became chief designer. Though there has been a tendency to see him primarily as a technician, he designed both glass and fittings throughout his career. His glass in the 1930s unsurprisingly resembles that of Travers very closely - along with L Lee he was to complete Travers's outstanding designs after he died, both fittings and glass. His later glass is varied, with some but not all moving away in style from that of Travers. Crawford's fittings show an awareness of current artistic trends, in particular the use of low relief in his carving. At times this evokes the work of E Gill and Crawford's rather stylised figures show the influence of Art Deco, more generally associated with commercial enterprises. For nearly 10 years after 1958 he was associated with D Nye, who used him to draw churches and cathedrals as well as designing fittings for Nye's churches. Crawford died at Worthing.
Most of the above derives from the researches of Fr Stephen Keeble (in R Gage: .All Manner of Workmanship, 2015)
Glass: Five Ashes
R B Craze
Romilly Bernard Craze (1892-1974) was best known after World War II as a restorer of damaged churches. His most prominent work in this category was the rebuilding of Pugin's Roman Catholic Southwark Cathedral. He was also a consulting architect to the ICBS and designed several churches in London, particularly in the eastern and southern suburbs, both because of expansion and after war damage. Depending on circumstances and the available budget, he worked in a variety of styles and was responsible for the buildings of the shrine of Our Lady at Walsingham. This commission was probably due to the close links with the shrine of his partner, Sir William Milner, 8th Bart (1893-1960) who was one of its original guardians.
Designed: Goring, - St Richard (1966)
R T Creed
Richard T Creed (1847-1914), though born in London, the son of a smith, is first recorded as an orphan in Mathon, Herefordshire in 1861. Geographical proximity probably explains why he was articled to an architect in Worcester named Hopkins, who was probably the prolific local practitioner William Jeffrey Hopkins (1821-1901). Creed maintained his links with the city, for as late as 1900 he designed a building there for the College for the Blind. By 1871, now describing himself as an architect, he had returned to London and before starting his own practice, he assisted R N Shaw and W E Nesfield (1835-88). He became Architect-Surveyor to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, as well as working privately on domestic and other projects, including houses at Chiswick, from an office which at the time of his death was in Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn (KD/L). The name of the practice changed in the following year to Creed and Heal at the same address (ibid); A V Heal had been a pupil of Creed and was already his partner, though it is doubtful whether any junior member of the Creed family was now involved as only Creed's daughters survived him. Creed himself had prospered and by about 1882 lived at Little Bardfield, in Essex, where he later moved to the Hall. He and two sons are commemorated in the church (one of the latter, Richard junior (1889-1911), who died aged 21, was in G F Bodley’s office). Creed's restoration of Walberton, though it earned him notoriety, is no more drastic than others in the C19. Much of the reaction reflects changing attitudes.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obit: Building News 105 (1914) p671
Restored: Ripe (1896); Walberton (1903); West Firle (1884)
Edward Cresy (1792-1858) was the son of a Kentish master-carpenter. After training as an architect in London under James Parkinson, who laid out the Portman Estate, he worked for two years for George Smith, another successful designer of estates. In order to improve his understanding of ancient architecture he toured the country on foot and with two companions travelled extensively in southern Europe. With one companion, G L Taylor, he wrote several successful volumes on Italian architecture. He then went into practice as an architect, but produced relatively little, possibly because he refused on principle to take part in competitions. In England much of his work is to be found in his native part of Kent, around Dartford. The tomb in the Fitzalan Chapel at Arundel, the reason for his presence here, appears to be the only one he designed and the circumstances of its commissioning are not known. Remarkably, he reverted to the particular skills learned in the early part of his career, when during the early 1830s he acquired and at least partly developed a site in Paris on the lines of a London square. In his later years, he was active mainly as a civil engineer.
Lit: D Burfield: Edward Cresy 1792-1858, Architect and Civil Engineer, Donington, 2003; DNB; BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 16 p793 and 17 p166
Memorial: Arundel, - Fitzalan chapel
J Cribb H J Cribb
Herbert Joseph Cribb (1892-1967) – he never used his first name and was universally known as Joe - was born in Hammersmith. In 1906 he became E Gill’s first apprentice and moved with him after 1910 to Ditchling, where he helped to establish the Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic in 1921 (see under Gill). In 1922 Cribb's bother Laurence ('Laurie') joined the guild, but left with Gill two years later when the latter moved to Wales After this, Cribb took charge of all stonework there for the rest of his life, calling himself a carver and letter cutter, and his later work is stylistically close to Gill's; much of it is to be found in Roman Catholic churches. He undertook commissions from the Imperial War Graves Commission (of which Gill’s brother M Gill was a member) and was an artistic adviser to the Diocese of Chichester.
Fittings: Brighton and Hove, - Ascension, Patcham, communion table; - Good Shepherd, inscription; - St John Carlton Hill, carving; Buxted, - St Margaret, inscriptions and desk; Eridge Green, font; Findon Valley, font (attr); Fishersgate, font; Haywards Heath, - St Richard, font (attr); Saltdean, font (attr); Worthing, - St John, West Worthing, font and lectern
E E Cronk
Edwyn Evans Cronk (1846-1919) was the son of an auctioneer of the same unusual name (1821/22-86), who in 1881 was at 138 High Street, Sevenoaks with another son William Henry (1848-1921) who became a land agent. Edwyn Junior was linked to this business as late as 1903 (KD/Kent), when it is described as architects, surveyors and land agents. He had joined it even before he was articled to his cousin Henry Hickman Cronk (1839-1902), architect of 4 Mount Ephraim, Tunbridge Wells. Seemingly, he went from this position to join the office of W M Teulon, whose partner he became in 1869. After Teulon retired, Cronk opened an office at 2 Pall Mall and then from 1915 at 1B King Street nearby, where he remained until his death (KD/L). He is also listed as Henry Cronk’s partner in St John’s Road, Tunbridge Wells as late as 1887 (KD/Kent), but probably lived in London - he died in Kensington. A building designed by him as a hotel survives in Holborn Viaduct in the City and it is likely that he was responsible for other commercial buildings in London.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Altered: Mark Cross (1873)
Richard Crook was a member of Ford, Newman and Whitty (see under A Whitty) and when that practice merged with J D Clarke and Partners of Eastbourne (see above in this section), he became a partner
Alterations and extensions: See under J D Clarke and Partners
W A Crossley
Said to have been a builder not an architect, when he produced a design for a combined hall and church at Peacehaven in 1952, which aroused the disapproval of Bishop Bell.
Designed: Peacehaven (c1952, not built)
John Crunden (c1741-1835) was born in Sussex, but moved to London and became known for the pattern books for carpenters and plasterers he produced during his earlier career. He used the Palladian and later the Adam styles - he may actually have worked with Robert Adam on occasion. However, after he became District Surveyor of Paddington, St Pancras and St Luke Chelsea in 1774, his private work seems largely to have ceased for the rest of his long life. The chief survivor of the buildings he designed is Boodle's club in St James's Street London; otherwise few of those for which he was responsible all over England survive. The only other work in Sussex attributed to him is the lodges at Heathfield Park.
Lit: BAL Biog file
Designed: Brighton, - St Stephen (probably 1776 as a ballroom, later the royal chapel; moved and altered 1851)
Thomas Cubitt (1788-1855) was apprenticed as a carpenter, but became renowned as a developer and builder of large residential estates in London, including Bloomsbury and Belgravia in particular. He owed his success to his revolutionary idea of integrating all aspects of design and construction, instead of employing individual craftsmen. Outside London, he undertook extensive work in Kemp Town, Brighton, where he himself had an address in Sussex Square in 1840 (PD). He attained the peak of his career when he was invited to design Osborne House for Queen Victoria. In his will he left over £1 million, a phenomenal amount of money for the time.
Altered: Brighton, - St George, Kemp Town
Jonathon Culley designed a window at Lodsworth in 1991.
Ada Currey (1852-1913) made her first known design for stained glass in 1888, which was made by J Powell and Sons. Her father was William Currey of Weybridge, Surrey (1819/20-86), who was legal adviser to the Duke of Devonshire and the brother of Henry Currey (see immediately below), who inter alia also worked for the Duke as an architect. Initially, Ada was treated as an amateur, though she exhibited paintings, but within a few years Powell’s were paying her for designs for glass, paintings and mosaics and she became a paid employee of the firm from 1890 to 1901. It was presumably in accordance with the then norms of polite society that in 1891 she describing herself as without a profession and living off her own means - these were not insubstantial as she left over £18,000. Through this period she was looking after her widowed stepmother as well. After her employment by Powell's ended, she continued to design glass on her own account, which was largely made by them, until her death. She never married and is recalled as deeply religious.
Lit: D Hadley: Ada Currey (1852-1913): a Forgotten Artist, JSG 24 (2000)
Glass: Newick; Rusper
Henry Currey (1820-1900) was the son of a solicitor and Clerk of the House of Lords and went to Eton before being articled to D Burton and then joining the office of William Cubitt. He started his own practice in 1843 and four years later became architect and surveyor of St Thomas’s Hospital, where he designed the new hospital which still stands in part. He designed other major hospitals and was architect to the Duke of Devonshire at Eastbourne, where he laid out much of the Duke’s estate and worked on the sea defences. He was architect to Eastbourne College (KD 1878) and, more prosaically, designed both offices in the City and buildings for the Lewes Union workhouse in 1867 (B 25 p704). He was the uncle of Philip Currey and father of Percivall (see below for both), the latter of whom was his partner, and was twice Vice-President of the RIBA.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 79 p495; RIBAJ 8 (1900) p113
Designed: Eastbourne, - St Peter (1894-96 – dem 1971)
Percivall Currey (1851-1918) was the son of H Currey (see immediately above) and also an Etonian. He was articled to his father and then worked in his office before becoming a partner in 1878. He took over his lucrative practice, designing houses, hospitals as well as public buildings and hotels in Eastbourne, where he was surveyor of part of the Duke of Devonshire’s estate, following his father. He also assumed his father’s position at St Thomas’s Hospital and was Hon. Secretary of the Surveyors Association.
Lit: BAL Biog file; Obits: The Builder 114 p345, RIBAJ 25 (1918) pp180-81
Designed: Eastbourne, - St Peter (1894-96 – dem 1971)
Philip Currey (1851-94) was the nephew of Henry Currey (see above), though he practised independently in London after a time in G E Street’s office. His pre-eminence in restorations in the Lewes area probably came about because the restoration of South Malling, his first commission there, was largely paid for by his father Edmund Charles Currey (1822/23-1904). He had been a lawyer in London before becoming Registrar of the Archdeaconry of Lewes, and would thus have been well placed to further his son's interests. At the time they were living at Malling Deanery, though by 1891 father and son had moved to Castlegate House, Lewes, where both died.
Restored: Lewes, - St John sub Castro (1883-84); - St Michael (1877-78); - St Thomas (1877); Piddinghoe (1882); South Malling (1873); Tarring Neville (1893)
Monument: Lewes, - St John sub Castro
T F Curtis
Thomas Figgis Curtis (1845-1924) was related to H Hughes whose wife's maiden name had been Curtis. On Hughes's death in 1883 he took over his stained glass firm, Ward and Hughes and renamed it Curtis, Ward and Hughes. The firm lasted until Curtis died and he himself designed some glass for it, such as the signed window of 1901 at East Winch, Norfolk. However, most of the firm's work whilst he was in charge was designed by G Parlby. Both mens' glass was in a more pictorial and less mediaevalising idiom, characteristic of the late C19, than the firm's earlier products. Curtis had a house at Rustington, where he and his family were living in 1911.
For work see under Ward and Hughes
J E K Cutts and J P Cutts
John Edward Knight Cutts (1847-1938) and John Priston Cutts (1854-1935) were brothers, who were both pupils and then assistants of E Christian (see above). J E K Cutts started in practice in 1873, designing at least one church in partnership with Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (1851-1942), the precursor of Art Nouveau (B 45 p786). During the earlier part of his career, most of the churches he designed and restored were in the western part of England and London. His brother initially assisted him, eg providing quantities, but was a partner by 1886 (B 51 p222), after which they became chiefly known for their large, yet inexpensive urban churches, which are unexpectedly grand and well proportioned. J P Cutts in particular also designed houses.
Lit: BAL Biog files
Designed: Chichester, - St George (1901-02)
- Category: Architects and Artists
- Published: 21 May 2008